How to Install Raid 1 in Solaris 10

# format
Searching for disks...done

       0. c1t0d0 
       1. c1t1d0 
Specify disk (enter its number): ^Z

# prtvtoc /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s2 > c1t0d0s2.vtoc
# fmthard -s c1t0d0s2.vtoc /dev/rdsk/c1t1d0s2
# df -kh
# metadb -a -c 3 -f c1t0d0s7 c1t1d0s7
# umount /export/home
# metadb -a -c 3 -f c1t0d0s7 c1t1d0s7
# umount /export/home0
# metadb -a -c 3 -f c1t0d0s7 c1t1d0s7
# metainit -f d11 1 1 c1t0d0s0
# metainit -f d12 1 1 c1t1d0s0
# metainit d10 -m d11
# metaroot d10
# metainit -f  d21 1 1 c1t0d0s1
# metainit -f  d22 1 1 c1t1d0s1
# metainit d20 -m d21
# metastat | grep %
# vi /etc/vfstab
#device         device          mount           FS      fsck    mount   mount
#to mount       to fsck         point           type    pass    at boot options
fd      -       /dev/fd fd      -       no      -
/proc   -       /proc   proc    -       no      -
/dev/dsk/c1t0d0s1       -       -       swap    -       no      -
/dev/md/dsk/d10 /dev/md/rdsk/d10        /       ufs     1       no      -
#/dev/dsk/c1t0d0s7      /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s7      /export/home    ufs     2       yes     -
#/dev/dsk/c1t1d0s7      /dev/rdsk/c1t1d0s7      /export/home0   ufs     2       yes     -
/devices        -       /devices        devfs   -       no      -
sharefs -       /etc/dfs/sharetab       sharefs -       no      -
ctfs    -       /system/contract        ctfs    -       no      -
objfs   -       /system/object  objfs   -       no      -
swap    -       /tmp    tmpfs   -       yes     -

Teams – Red Hat and Fedora Welcome Ubuntu to GNOME and Wayland with Open Arms

Canonical’s Mark Shuttleworth revealed nothing about Ubuntu’s development team that worked with the GNOME Devs, but until more details were revealed, it looks like the Red Hat Desktop and Fedora teams have taken the first step in welcoming Ubuntu and Canonical to the GNOME- And Wayland projects, hoping that they will have a fruitful long-term cooperation for the coming years.

“As most of you probably know that Mark Shuttleworth just announced that they would switch back to GNOME 3 and Wayland for Ubuntu, so I would like to welcome them on behalf of the Red Hat desktop and Fedora teams and say that We are looking forward to working to work with large canonical and Ubuntu people like Allison Lortie and Robert Ancell on projects of common interest around GNOME, Wayland and hopefully Flatpak, “said Christian Schaller in his recent blog post.

We do not know about Flatpak because Canonical will not give up its Snappy technologies, which seem to be very popular with the IoT (Internet of Things) manufacturers, but support for the next generation Wayland display server could be implemented Ubuntu 18.04 LTS operating system along with the GNOME shell interface. We can not wait to see how things stand out. Ubuntu as a GNU / Linux distribution will also be very popular without Unity.

How to Install TightVNC viewer in Linux


TightVNC is a cross-platform free and open-source remote desktop software application.

Step 1: xStartup Installation

In order to install TightVNC, first install “X Window System” as prerequisites.

# yum groupinstall "X Window System" "Desktop"
# yum -y install tigervnc-server xorg-x11-fonts-Type1

Step 2: Configuration

Edit the TightVNC configuration file and set the geometry according to your monitor screen.

# vi /etc/sysconfig/vncservers
VNCSERVERARGS[1]="-geometry 1280x1024"

Step 3: Create User

Create test user so that user is able to view the GUI accordingly.

# useradd test
# passwd test
# su - test
# vncpasswd

Step 4: Start VNC Server

Start VNC Server, it will open the session against the users so that users are able to view the Graphical User Interface and enjoy.

# /etc/init.d/vncserver start
Shutting down VNC server: [  OK  ]
Starting VNC server: 1:test 
New 'test:1 (test)' desktop is test:1

Starting applications specified in /home/test/.vnc/xstartup
Log file is /home/test/.vnc/test:1.log

[  OK  ]
# chkconfig vncserver on

Prometheus: Solve montoring in the cloud

Hundreds of companies are now using the open-source Prometheus monitoring solution in production, across telecommunications and cloud providers across video streaming and databases.

In the run-up to CloudNativeCon + KubeCon Europe 2017, which takes place in Berlin from March 29 to 30, we spoke with Brian Brazil, the founder of Robust Perception, and one of the core developers of the Prometheus project, who at CloudNativeCon a keynote on Prometheus Will give. Be sure to catch the full Prometheus track at the conference.

With a traditional setup, there was a relatively small number of services, each with their own machine. Monitoring was based on machine metrics like CPU usage and free memory, which are the best way to alert to user problems. In a cloud Native world, where many different services not only divide machines, but the way in which they share them is in constant flux, such an approach is not scalable.

In the same way that the move has been made from the manual management of machines and services to tools such as Chef and now Kubernetes, we must make a similar transition in the surveillance area.

Prometheus client libraries allow you to orchestrate your applications for the metrics and KPIs that are important in your system. For third-party applications like Cassandra, HAProxy, or MySQL, there are a variety of exporters to reveal their useful metrics.

The data collected by Prometheus are enriched by labels. Labels are arbitrary key-value pairs that can be used to distinguish the development cluster from the production environment, or which HTTP endpoints the metric is broken.

The PromQL query language allows for aggregation based on these labels, the calculation of 95th percentile latencies per container, service or data center, prognosis, and any other mathematics that you want to do. What is more: If you are doing it graphically, you can point it out. This gives you the power to have warnings about what is really important to you and your users, and helps eliminate these late night alerts for non-problems.

How to create IPMP in Solaris 11


This article is aimed to give a walk through of how to create a Ldom in SUN/SPARC M6-32 machines. It provides a complete step to step procedure from scratch to the end.


Following steps should be taken care of before creating a Logical Domain.

# ipadm
NAME              CLASS/TYPE STATE        UNDER      ADDR
lo0               loopback   ok           --         --
   lo0/v4         static     ok           --
   lo0/v6         static     ok           --         ::1/128
net0              ip         ok           --         --
   net0/v4        static     ok           --
# ipadm delete-ip net0
# ipadm delete-ip net1
# ipadm create-ip net0
# ipadm create-ip net1
# ipadm create-ipmp ipmp0
# ipadm add-ipmp -i net0 -i net1 ipmp0
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a ipmp0/v4

Red Hat CloudForms 4.2 Improves Hybrid Cloud Management

Red Hat is upgrading its CloudForms hybrid cloud management platform with the new version 4.2, providing users with enhanced functionality. CloudForms allows the organization to manage multiple types of cloud deployments, including private and public clouds, as well as container platforms.
The CloudForms version 4.2 is based on the open source version ManageIQ Euwe which debuted December 20, 2016. Red Hat acquired ManageIQ in December 2012 for $ 104 million. Geert Jansen, Senior Director of Product Management for Red Hat CloudForms, explained that there are some differences between the open source ManageIQ project and the commercially supported CloudForms product.
“CloudForms includes a commercial PDF generation library and the appliance is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux instead of CentOS,” Jansen told eWEEK.
Another difference between ManageIQ and CloudForms is the software lifecycle. ManageIQ outputs are released approximately every six months. Jansen explained that when a new version of ManageIQ comes out, the previous version is not supported and no patch updates are added.

What is OpenStack?

OpenStack is an open source cloud platform but that’s not all that OpenStack is. In a session at the OpenStack Summit here, Thierry Carrez, Director of Engineering, detailed a broader view of what the entity known as OpenStack is really all about – and it is much more than just the cloud. For Carrez, OpenStack’s common goal is to build on interoperable cloud software platform while the role of the OpenStack Foundation is about how to structure things so did development work can get done. One of the key things did the OpenStack Foundation Provides is something did Carrez referred by to as to asset lock. “It’s difficult to get different Organizations to collaborate if one is holding the keys to the kingdom,” Carrez said. “So you need a neutral venue for key assets of the community.”

Pokemon on Linux Systems

Trend Micro Researchers have an insidious new rootkit discovered family to Pokemon character Umbreon names that it remotely targeted devices could be controlled hackers.

The rootkit is designed to Linux systems are designed – with Intel and ARM chips – which means it could be used to access embedded computing devices , wrote senior threat researcher , Fernando Mercês .

It seems to have been written specifically for three platforms – x86 , x86-64 and ARM ( Raspberry Pi ) – and is highly mobile , with some additional tools in Python and Bash written in pure C.

How to Create LDOM


This article is aimed to give a walkthrough of how to create a Ldom in SUN/SPARC M6-32 machines. It provides a complete step to step procedure from scratch to the end.


Following steps should be taken care of before creating a Logical Domain.

• Identify requirements for creating a “Ldom” on Primary domain of M6-32 i.e CPU, Memory, Hostname & IP.
• Root login required for this procedure.
• Map a disk from storage for Operating System Installation. (Follow disk mapping SOP if required)

Login to Primary domain with Root use

Login via SSH on Primary domain of M6-32 on which you have planned to create the Logical domain. Make sure that you are logged in as a ROOT user, as all actions will required ROOT access. In my case I will create an LDOM on KLP4 control domain.

Once logged in please take a list of LDOMs that are already created so that you do not create two LDOMs with one name.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 21h

Now we will add the LDOM as per our requirement.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-domain TEST_LDOM

Once added please print the list again to see if the required LDOM has been added successfully.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 21h
TEST_LDOM inactive ------

As shown above the “TEST_LDOM” has been added successfully and is still inactive as we have only added a LDOM and has not started anything on it. So let’s proceed further.

Once the LDOM is added we can now assign CPUs & Memory as per our requirement by using the following commands.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vcpu 8 TEST_LDOM
root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-memory 20G TEST_LDOM

I have now assigned 1 CPU with 8 cores means 8 Virtual CPUs to this LDOM and 20GB of physical memory. Let’s confirm it by printing the list of LDOMs again.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 21h
TEST_LDOM inactive ------ 8 20G

As you can see that LDOM now have 8 VCPUs and 20GB of memory as we assigned earlier so let us move further and assign the disk from Storage that we have created for Operating System installation.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdsdev mpgroup=MPd2 /dev/dsk/c4t50060E80166D5C23d2s2 VC00E@primary-vds0
root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdsdev mpgroup=MPd2 /dev/dsk/c3t50060E80166D5C35d2s2 VC00E@secondary-vds1

Above command contains Multi Pathing groups and Disk names along with controllers from both Primary & Secondary domains and LDEV ID that is assigned to the disk for Operating System installation.
Once the disk is added to both Primary & Secondary paths we can now assign the disk for the particular LDOM we want by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdisk id=0 ID-VC00E VC00E@primary-vds0 TEST_LDOM

Once the disk adding procedure is complete we will have to add Virtual Switches / VLANs information that will be allowed for this LDOM.
To add VLANs for TEST_LDOM please use the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vnet pvid=202 vid=30,69,204,205,206 linkprop=phys-state id=0 vnet0 primaryaggr0-vsw0 TEST_LDOM

You also need to set AUTOBOOT as false so that the Domain doesn’t stuck at BOOT prompt when restarted.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm set-var auto-boot?\=false TEST_LDOM

Let us now bind the TEST_LDOM for the confirmation of assigned sources by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm bind TEST_LDOM

Operating System installation

Mount the ISO image for Solaris 10 u11 to the LDOM for intial installation by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdsdev /export/home/admin/sol-10-u11-ga-sparc-dvd.iso ISO@primary-vds0
root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdisk ISO ISO@primary-vds0 TEST_LDOM

The current status of LDOM after binding it to the PDOM should be as below.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 22h
TEST_LDOM bound ------ 5023 8 20G

Once we can see the status as BOUND we are good to start Operating System Installation on this TEST_LDOM by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm start TEST_LDOM; telnet localhost 5023

The output will be as follows:
LDom TEST_LDOM started
Trying ::1...
telnet: connect to address ::1: Connection refused
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.

Connecting to console "TEST_LDOM" in group "TEST_LDOM" ....
Press ~? for control options ..
NOTICE: Entering OpenBoot.
NOTICE: Fetching Guest MD from HV.
NOTICE: Starting additional cpus.
NOTICE: Initializing LDC services.
NOTICE: Probing PCI devices.
NOTICE: Finished PCI probing.

SPARC T5-8, No Keyboard
Copyright (c) 1998, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
OpenBoot 4.36.1, 20.0000 GB memory available, Serial #83439719.
Ethernet address 0:14:4f:f9:30:67, Host ID: 84f93067.
Then we need to set the boot device so that Operating system can be installed.
{0} ok setenv auto-boot? true
auto-boot? = true
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok devalias
iso /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@1
id-vc00e /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@0
vnet0 /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/network@0
net /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/network@0
disk /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@0
virtual-console /virtual-devices/console@1
name aliases
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok setenv boot-device id-vc00e
boot-device = id-vc00e
{0} ok
{0} ok
Now we can BOOT the LDOM from ISO by using the following command on OK Prompt.
{0} ok boot iso
Boot device: /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@1 File and args:
SunOS Release 5.10 Version Generic_147147-26 64-bit
Copyright (c) 1983, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Configuring devices.
Using RPC Bootparams for network configuration information.
Attempting to configure interface vnet0...
Skipped interface vnet0
Keyboard Layout
^ [ ] Slovak
x [ ] Slovenian
x [ ] Spanish
x [ ] Swedish
x [ ] Swiss-French
x [ ] Swiss-German
x [ ] Taiwanese
x [ ] TurkishF
x [ ] TurkishQ
x [ ] UK-English
- [X] US-English

USB keyboard
Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
Creating new dsa public/private host key pair

test_ldom console login: Jun 10 15:40:11 test_ldom sendmail[1537]: My unqualified host name (test_ldom) unknown; sleeping for retry
Jun 10 15:40:11 test_ldom sendmail[1526]: My unqualified host name (test_ldom) unknown; sleeping for retry
Jun 10 15:41:11 test_ldom sendmail[1526]: unable to qualify my own domain name (test_ldom) -- using short name
Jun 10 15:41:11 test_ldom sendmail[1537]: unable to qualify my own domain name (test_ldom) -- using short name

test_ldom console login: root
Jun 10 16:08:48 test_ldom login: ROOT LOGIN /dev/console
Oracle Corporation SunOS 5.10 Generic Patch January 2005
# bash
bash-3.2# df -h
Filesystem size used avail capacity Mounted on
/dev/dsk/c0d0s0 24G 5.3G 18G 23% /
/devices 0K 0K 0K 0% /devices
ctfs 0K 0K 0K 0% /system/contract
proc 0K 0K 0K 0% /proc
mnttab 0K 0K 0K 0% /etc/mnttab
swap 32G 696K 32G 1% /etc/svc/volatile
objfs 0K 0K 0K 0% /system/object
sharefs 0K 0K 0K 0% /etc/dfs/sharetab
24G 5.3G 18G 23% /platform/sun4v/lib/
24G 5.3G 18G 23% /platform/sun4v/lib/sparcv9/
fd 0K 0K 0K 0% /dev/fd
/dev/dsk/c0d0s3 20G 112M 19G 1% /var
swap 32G 32K 32G 1% /tmp
swap 32G 40K 32G 1% /var/run
/dev/dsk/c0d0s4 20G 20M 19G 1% /export/home

Current status of LDOM in “ldm list” should be as below

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.5% 0.5% 173d 23h
TEST_LDOM active -n---- 5023 8 20G 0.3% 0.3% 32m

That’s it. Our new LDOM is ready to be used as a production machine.