How to Create LDOM


This article is aimed to give a walkthrough of how to create a Ldom in SUN/SPARC M6-32 machines. It provides a complete step to step procedure from scratch to the end.


Following steps should be taken care of before creating a Logical Domain.

• Identify requirements for creating a “Ldom” on Primary domain of M6-32 i.e CPU, Memory, Hostname & IP.
• Root login required for this procedure.
• Map a disk from storage for Operating System Installation. (Follow disk mapping SOP if required)

Login to Primary domain with Root use

Login via SSH on Primary domain of M6-32 on which you have planned to create the Logical domain. Make sure that you are logged in as a ROOT user, as all actions will required ROOT access. In my case I will create an LDOM on KLP4 control domain.

Once logged in please take a list of LDOMs that are already created so that you do not create two LDOMs with one name.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 21h

Now we will add the LDOM as per our requirement.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-domain TEST_LDOM

Once added please print the list again to see if the required LDOM has been added successfully.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 21h
TEST_LDOM inactive ------

As shown above the “TEST_LDOM” has been added successfully and is still inactive as we have only added a LDOM and has not started anything on it. So let’s proceed further.

Once the LDOM is added we can now assign CPUs & Memory as per our requirement by using the following commands.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vcpu 8 TEST_LDOM
root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-memory 20G TEST_LDOM

I have now assigned 1 CPU with 8 cores means 8 Virtual CPUs to this LDOM and 20GB of physical memory. Let’s confirm it by printing the list of LDOMs again.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 21h
TEST_LDOM inactive ------ 8 20G

As you can see that LDOM now have 8 VCPUs and 20GB of memory as we assigned earlier so let us move further and assign the disk from Storage that we have created for Operating System installation.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdsdev mpgroup=MPd2 /dev/dsk/c4t50060E80166D5C23d2s2 VC00E@primary-vds0
root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdsdev mpgroup=MPd2 /dev/dsk/c3t50060E80166D5C35d2s2 VC00E@secondary-vds1

Above command contains Multi Pathing groups and Disk names along with controllers from both Primary & Secondary domains and LDEV ID that is assigned to the disk for Operating System installation.
Once the disk is added to both Primary & Secondary paths we can now assign the disk for the particular LDOM we want by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdisk id=0 ID-VC00E VC00E@primary-vds0 TEST_LDOM

Once the disk adding procedure is complete we will have to add Virtual Switches / VLANs information that will be allowed for this LDOM.
To add VLANs for TEST_LDOM please use the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vnet pvid=202 vid=30,69,204,205,206 linkprop=phys-state id=0 vnet0 primaryaggr0-vsw0 TEST_LDOM

You also need to set AUTOBOOT as false so that the Domain doesn’t stuck at BOOT prompt when restarted.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm set-var auto-boot?\=false TEST_LDOM

Let us now bind the TEST_LDOM for the confirmation of assigned sources by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm bind TEST_LDOM

Operating System installation

Mount the ISO image for Solaris 10 u11 to the LDOM for intial installation by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdsdev /export/home/admin/sol-10-u11-ga-sparc-dvd.iso ISO@primary-vds0
root@KLP4-CD # ldm add-vdisk ISO ISO@primary-vds0 TEST_LDOM

The current status of LDOM after binding it to the PDOM should be as below.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.2% 0.2% 173d 22h
TEST_LDOM bound ------ 5023 8 20G

Once we can see the status as BOUND we are good to start Operating System Installation on this TEST_LDOM by using the following command.

root@KLP4-CD # ldm start TEST_LDOM; telnet localhost 5023

The output will be as follows:
LDom TEST_LDOM started
Trying ::1...
telnet: connect to address ::1: Connection refused
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.

Connecting to console "TEST_LDOM" in group "TEST_LDOM" ....
Press ~? for control options ..
NOTICE: Entering OpenBoot.
NOTICE: Fetching Guest MD from HV.
NOTICE: Starting additional cpus.
NOTICE: Initializing LDC services.
NOTICE: Probing PCI devices.
NOTICE: Finished PCI probing.

SPARC T5-8, No Keyboard
Copyright (c) 1998, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
OpenBoot 4.36.1, 20.0000 GB memory available, Serial #83439719.
Ethernet address 0:14:4f:f9:30:67, Host ID: 84f93067.
Then we need to set the boot device so that Operating system can be installed.
{0} ok setenv auto-boot? true
auto-boot? = true
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok devalias
iso /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@1
id-vc00e /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@0
vnet0 /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/network@0
net /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/network@0
disk /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@0
virtual-console /virtual-devices/console@1
name aliases
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok
{0} ok setenv boot-device id-vc00e
boot-device = id-vc00e
{0} ok
{0} ok
Now we can BOOT the LDOM from ISO by using the following command on OK Prompt.
{0} ok boot iso
Boot device: /virtual-devices@100/channel-devices@200/disk@1 File and args:
SunOS Release 5.10 Version Generic_147147-26 64-bit
Copyright (c) 1983, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Configuring devices.
Using RPC Bootparams for network configuration information.
Attempting to configure interface vnet0...
Skipped interface vnet0
Keyboard Layout
^ [ ] Slovak
x [ ] Slovenian
x [ ] Spanish
x [ ] Swedish
x [ ] Swiss-French
x [ ] Swiss-German
x [ ] Taiwanese
x [ ] TurkishF
x [ ] TurkishQ
x [ ] UK-English
- [X] US-English

USB keyboard
Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
Creating new dsa public/private host key pair

test_ldom console login: Jun 10 15:40:11 test_ldom sendmail[1537]: My unqualified host name (test_ldom) unknown; sleeping for retry
Jun 10 15:40:11 test_ldom sendmail[1526]: My unqualified host name (test_ldom) unknown; sleeping for retry
Jun 10 15:41:11 test_ldom sendmail[1526]: unable to qualify my own domain name (test_ldom) -- using short name
Jun 10 15:41:11 test_ldom sendmail[1537]: unable to qualify my own domain name (test_ldom) -- using short name

test_ldom console login: root
Jun 10 16:08:48 test_ldom login: ROOT LOGIN /dev/console
Oracle Corporation SunOS 5.10 Generic Patch January 2005
# bash
bash-3.2# df -h
Filesystem size used avail capacity Mounted on
/dev/dsk/c0d0s0 24G 5.3G 18G 23% /
/devices 0K 0K 0K 0% /devices
ctfs 0K 0K 0K 0% /system/contract
proc 0K 0K 0K 0% /proc
mnttab 0K 0K 0K 0% /etc/mnttab
swap 32G 696K 32G 1% /etc/svc/volatile
objfs 0K 0K 0K 0% /system/object
sharefs 0K 0K 0K 0% /etc/dfs/sharetab
24G 5.3G 18G 23% /platform/sun4v/lib/
24G 5.3G 18G 23% /platform/sun4v/lib/sparcv9/
fd 0K 0K 0K 0% /dev/fd
/dev/dsk/c0d0s3 20G 112M 19G 1% /var
swap 32G 32K 32G 1% /tmp
swap 32G 40K 32G 1% /var/run
/dev/dsk/c0d0s4 20G 20M 19G 1% /export/home

Current status of LDOM in “ldm list” should be as below

root@KLP4-CD # ldm list
primary active -n-cv- UART 64 100G 0.5% 0.5% 173d 23h
TEST_LDOM active -n---- 5023 8 20G 0.3% 0.3% 32m

That’s it. Our new LDOM is ready to be used as a production machine.

Linux, Happy 25th birthday

25 years old transform Linux on August 25, the day Linus Torvalds his fateful message with a new operating system sent out asking for help. “I’m doing a (free) operating system for 386 (486) (just a hobby, will not be big and professional like gnu) AT clones. This is brewing since April, and begins to prepare. I’d like any feedback on things, people like / dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file system (for practical reasons) among other things), “he wrote in the comp.os. minix message board. And the rest, as they say, is history.

What is particularly interesting about Torvalds’ Remarkably, there. Not of snark or derision followed but with general interest While we believe that up to Torvalds actually prepared to show a product, potential users can chalk, we are also reminded that the Internet in 1991 was a very different place than it is today.

The Linux Foundation has just released a detailed report on the operating system with highlights from the past 25 years. They write that 13,500 developers have contributed 1,300 companies kernel because the whole project to Git rose in 2005. The most interesting bit of data?

“In the time between 3:19 and 4.7 versions the kernel community changes at an average rate of 7.8 patches per hour was mixed; this is a slight increase from the 7.71 patches per hour in the previous version of this report and “saw a continuation of the long-term trend towards higher patch volume. that the Linux kernel is almost constantly be repaired and all of a volunteer army updated by dedicated programmers manage the glue of the Internet to see.

You can the entire report can be read here.

Linux now runs most of the websites you visit and runs on everything from gas pumps to smart watches. The OS teaches children thanks to the Raspberry Pi to program and it helped the French police save million euros. Heck, even Microsoft releases code for Linux. If you can not beat ’em, join’ em.

For a bit more insight into the history of the OS, I would recommend Rebel code and
Just for fun. These books to be released Linux time has come to the fore, to tell the fascinating story of Torvalds and his not “big and professional” side project.

Open Source & Free is in our DNA

Open source software (OSS) is computer software with source available with a license where the holder of the copyright provides the right to study, change and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose code. Open source software can be developed collaboratively public. Open source software is the most prominent example of open source development.

What follows is technically an info-graphic, and it is a graphic, and there is some information about it.

Although it was developed by people working in a company (in this case, SUSE), you will not find any statistical product here. No details on the shape of the product X is N times faster than the product and no demographic breakdown of who uses this platform or that.

What you will find is a list of the moments of human history caused, in part, through burning desire of humanity to free information. From the cave to drawings UNIVAC A-2 (and beyond), the same thing that forces us to make Linux (and many other projects) free and open source is present in many of the great achievements of humanity .

This list is by no means complete. Only so many examples could fit in here and still make it look elegant. Consider this as a starting point to contemplate the deep and profound impact our need to be open (and open source) has had on the world. It is part of us. It always has been.

It’s in our DNA.

How to Reduce the size of wtmpx file

Step 1: Introduction

The utmpx and wtmpx files are extended database files that have superseded the obsolete utmp and wtmp database files.
The utmpx database contains user access and accounting information for commands such as who(1), write(1), and login(1). The wtmpx database contains the history of user access and accounting information for the utmpx database.

Step 2: Create Backup of wtmpx

In order to create a backup of wtmpx first check the disk space in /tmp and then copy the file in /tmp directory

# /usr/lib/acct/fwtmp < /var/adm/wtmpx > /tmp/wtmpx.orig

Step 3: Empty wtmpx file

To empty wtmpx file us the following command

# cat /dev/null > /var/adm/wtmpx

Step 4: Zip original wtmpx file

Create a zip of original wtmpx file using gzip command

# gzip /tmp/wtmpx.orig

Step 5: Copy original wtmpx

Copy original wtmpx file in /var/adm/ for audit purpose

# cp /tmp/wtmpx.orig.gz /var/adm/

Android System Process infected by Trojan

Four different versions of Android. Loki cooperate to anchor appliances and install unwanted applications. One class of Android Trojans have to inject a way found themselves in system processes and the use of their new found access to perform a range of malicious operations.

Detected by Russian antivirus – Manufacturer Dr.Web as Android. Loki has this Trojan family evolved over time and has the ability, won some of their code in a system process to inject and thus, root privileges will receive.

Getting Started with ZFS on Debian 8


ZFS has been around for a very long time round about over 10 years, and that is the future Btrfs file system for Linux machines, ZFS has its own meaning. It was the first file system to implement many features to protect data from getting damaged.

But, although some distributions have started shipping Btrfs, he is still relatively young. ZFS on the other hand, is quite mature, and if you want to set up your own discs with a file system that is able to recover corrupted data, then you should look into ZFS.

There are many reasons why you should use for your ZFS file servers to create a hard disk pool to increase redundancy. On the one hand, it is scalable, so there is virtually no limit on the size of your storage is. And, it continues to check the integrity of your data to protect it from corruption.

How to Configure LDAP Server

Step 1: Introduction

LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. It is a lightweight client-server protocol for accessing directory services. LDAP runs over TCP/IP or other connection oriented transfer services.

Step 2: Installation

Use the following command to install LDAP or you may download and install the service manually from

# yum install *openldap* -y

Step 3: Start ldap service

# chkconfig --levels 235 ldap on
# service ldap start

Step 4: Create LDAP root user password

# slappasswd
    New password: 
    Re-enter new password: 

Step 5: Configuration

Update /etc/openldap/slapd.conf for the root password

# vi /etc/openldap/slapd.conf

    #68 database        bdb
    #69 suffix          "dc=adminmart,dc=com"
    #70 rootdn          "cn=Manager,dc=adminmart,dc=com"
    #71 rootpw          {SSHA}cWB1VzxDXZLf6F4pwvyNvApBQ8G/DltW

Step 6: Restart Service

# service ldap restart

Step 7: Create Local Users

# useradd test1
# passwd test1
    Changing password for user test1.
    New UNIX password: 
    Retype new UNIX password: 
    passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
# useradd test2
# passwd test2
    Changing password for user test2.
    New UNIX password: 
    Retype new UNIX password: 
    passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

Step 8: Migrate local users to LDAP

# grep root /etc/passwd > /etc/openldap/passwd.root
# grep test1 /etc/passwd > /etc/openldap/passwd.test1
# grep test2 /etc/passwd > /etc/openldap/passwd.test2

Step 9: Default Configuration

Update default settings on file /usr/share/openldap/migration/

    #71 $DEFAULT_MAIL_DOMAIN = "";
    #74 $DEFAULT_BASE = "dc=adminmart,dc=com";

Step 10: Convert passwd.file to ldif

Convert passwd.file to ldif (LDAP Data Interchange Format) file

# /usr/share/openldap/migration/ /etc/openldap/passwd.root /etc/openldap/root.ldif
# /usr/share/openldap/migration/ /etc/openldap/passwd.test1 /etc/openldap/test1.ldif
# /usr/share/openldap/migration/ /etc/openldap/passwd.test2 /etc/openldap/test2.ldif

Step 11: Update root.ldif

Update root.ldif file for the “Manager” of LDAP Server

# vi /etc/openldap/root.ldif

    #1 dn: uid=root,ou=People,dc=adminmart,dc=com
    #2 uid: root
    #3 cn: Manager
    #4 objectClass: account

Step 12: Create a domain ldif file

Create a domain ldif file (/etc/openldap/ using cat command

# cat /etc/openldap/

    dn: dc=adminmart,dc=com
    dc: adminmart
    description: LDAP Admin
    objectClass: dcObject
    objectClass: organizationalUnit
    ou: rootobject 
    dn: ou=People, dc=adminmart,dc=com
    ou: People
    description: Users of adminmart
    objectClass: organizationalUnit

Step 13: Import all users in to the LDAP

Import all users in to the LDAP

Add the Domain ldif file

# ldapadd -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=adminmart,dc=com" -W -f  /etc/openldap/
    Enter LDAP Password: 
    adding new entry "dc=adminmart,dc=com"
    adding new entry "ou=People, dc=adminmart,dc=com"

Add the users:

# ldapadd -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=adminmart,dc=com" -W -f  /etc/openldap/root.ldif
    Enter LDAP Password: 
    adding new entry "uid=root,ou=People,dc=adminmart,dc=com"
    adding new entry "uid=operator,ou=People,dc=adminmart,dc=com"

# ldapadd -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=adminmart,dc=com" -W -f  /etc/openldap/test1.ldif
    Enter LDAP Password: 
    adding new entry "uid=test1,ou=People,dc=adminmart,dc=com"

# ldapadd -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=adminmart,dc=com" -W -f  /etc/openldap/test2.ldif
    Enter LDAP Password: 
    adding new entry "uid=test2,ou=People,dc=adminmart,dc=com"

Step 14: Restart ldap service

# service ldap restart

Step 14: Test LDAP Server

It prints all the user information:

# ldapsearch -x -b 'dc=adminmart,dc=com' '(objectclass=*)' 

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Updates

One of the most interesting features that are going to land for GNOME are fwupd called, and it should be also in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. Discussions on fwupd and all the benefits that could bring, they have been around for some time. This new method is the result of collaboration between GNOME and Dell developers. In theory, if successful, to get enough attention from the community and suppliers.

The current situation is not really for Linux users. Most hardware companies offer firmware updates that only installed if you have to be a Windows operating system. This can be a real problem when you want to update the firmware for the motherboard, but this is just one example. fwupd should so well in Ubuntu For now, the new tool is still in development, and it is also dependent on the Linux vendor firmware service, which is an online resource where hardware manufacturers can load the new firmware. fwupd is not magic, it still needs to an online repository connection to download and install the new firmware, the. in this case Linux vendor firmware service or LVFS Asked a user to the Ubuntu mailing list, and it looks like fwupd should work in Ubuntu after fwupd and GNOME software packages Country.

In addition, they should work by default, without any further intervention. There is also a blueprint for this new feature, but it has not just been approved. “Ubuntu should support updating the firmware for systems and components (but not peripherals) via EFI UpdateCapsule so that users from Windows or DOS required to apply the BIOS / firmware update component, and light as such updates for all Ubuntu users are accessible. ” The only problem is that the blueprint has existed since July 2015 have been, and there is not yet any kind of authorization to see, even though it might only of lack of support. GNOME software has not yet landed on Ubuntu LTS 16.04.

Linux Kernel 4.3.1 Released

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more hardware platforms than any other operating system. Thanks to its dominance in smartphones, Android, which is built on top of the Linux kernel, has the largest installed base of all general purpose operating systems installed.

It has been over a month since Linus Torvalds announced the release of Linux kernel 4.3, and we have to admit we were wondering when it would get some maintenance releases. Well, today is that day, as the Linux kernel 4.3.1 was introduced and includes some pretty interesting things. First, in number, Linux kernel 4.3.1 changes files 136, with 1,224 438 insertions and deletions.

“I am announcing the release of the 4.3.1 kernel. All users of the 4.3 kernel series should upgrade,” said Greg Kroah-Hartman. “The updated 4.3.y git tree can be found at: git: linux-4.3.yy // can be found in the git normal web browser:;a=summary “.

According shortlog attached, the first maintenance release of the Linux kernel 4.3 brings improvements in dozens of ARM, x86, s390, MIPS, and ARM64 (AArch64) hardware architectures, multiple network upgrades, especially for things like Bluetooth, IPv6 , IPv4, mac80211, NFC, TIPC (transparent communication between processes) and Wi-Fi as well as a pair of USB controllers improvements sound.
Many drivers have been updated

Besides the architecture, networking and sound updates mentioned above, Linux kernel 4.3.1 updated many drivers, especially for things like Bluetooth, CLK, MFD, NFC, PINCTRL, TTY, USB, Xen, and the creation networks (especially wireless and Ethernet). Of course, Linux kernel 4.3.1 also adds some minor improvements under the hood that make Linux 4.3 kernel more reliable and stable.

all users of GNU / Linux running Linux kernel 4.3 for Linux 4.3.1 kernel upgrade as soon as possible, or more precisely as you get to the default software repositories of their operating systems are encouraged. Meanwhile, operating system vendors and experienced users can download the source code of the Linux kernel 4.3.1 right now from Softpedia or website and begin compiling by hand.

MacBook Air vs MacBook Pro